Epoetin alfa is a glycoprotein that specifically stimulates erythropoiesis, activates mitosis and maturation of erythrocytes from erythrocyte precursor cells. Recombinant epoetin alfa is synthesized in mammalian cells into which the gene encoding human erythropoietin is inserted. In its composition, biological and immunological properties, epoetin alfa is identical to natural human erythropoietin. The introduction of epoetin alfa leads to an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, improves blood supply to tissues and heart function. The most pronounced effect of epoetin alfa use is seen in anemia caused by chronic renal failure. Very rarely, with prolonged use of erythropoietin for the treatment of anemic conditions, the formation of neutralizing antibodies to erythropoietin may be observed with or without the development of partial aplasia of red blood cells. Pharmacokinetics. With intravenous administration of epoetin alfa in healthy individuals and patients with uremia, the elimination half-life is 5-6 hours. Hours. The bioavailability of epoetin alfa after subcutaneous administration is 25-40%.
Anemia in patients with chronic renal failure, including those on hemodialysis. Prevention and treatment of anemia in patients with solid tumors, in which the anemia was the result of anticancer therapy. Prevention and treatment of anemia in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) caused by the use of zidovudine, with an endogenous erythropoietin concentration of less than 500 IU/ml. Prevention and treatment of anemia in patients with multiple myeloma, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia.As part of a pre-deposit program prior to major surgery in patients with a hematocrit of 33-39%, to facilitate autologous blood collection and reduce the risk associated with the use of allogeneic blood transfusions if the expected need for transfused blood exceeds the amount that can be obtained by autologous collection without the use of epoetin alfa. Before a major operation with an expected blood loss of 900-1800 ml in adult patients without anemia or with mild to moderate anemia (hemoglobin concentration 100-130 g / l) to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusions and facilitate restoration of erythropoiesis.
Erythropoietin is a hormone that controls the formation of red blood cells, which are produced in the stem cells of the bone marrow. The process of creating erythrocytes is directly dependent on the level of oxygen in the blood, but erythropoietin itself is produced by the kidneys.
What is erythropoietin?
The molecule of such a hormone consists of amino acids, or rather their compounds. The glycosidic fragments bind to certain protein chains. Given the fact that each of these fragments is a specific form of sugar, the hormone erythropoietin may be of a different type. Each of these types is distinguished by the same bioactivity, but the main differences focus on physical and chemical properties.
Today, the synthesized hormone erythropoietin is produced in modern laboratories. Despite the fact that it has the same amino acid compounds as the natural hormone, the composition of the glucose elements is different.
It should be understood that the use of erythropoietin in sports, the instructions for use must be studied very well, since even a small concentration of this drug has a very strong effect on the body. Small deviations from the norm can cause a change in the rate of erythropoiesis.
Recombinant erythropoietin in sports
This hormone is widely used in modern sports. It is used to increase muscle performance. All drugs that affect the athlete's body in this way are called doping.
An athlete who, for example, takes erythropoietin beta, which is better known on the market under the trade name Epoetin beta, will be able to feel fatigue much longer, thus being able to withstand physical activity more easily. It is more suitable for those athletes who need uniform reinforcement over a long period of time. Mainly used by cyclists and swimmers. In bodybuilding, such a drug is rarely used.
In addition, the drug can be used to increase the volume of donated blood. In sports, the drug is also actively used, but it is better to pay attention to the analogues of the drug, since even a small concentration of it has a great effect on the body and can cause various side effects, especially if the main contraindications for the use of the drug are not taken into account. The main analogs of erythropoietin
Taking into account the fact that erythropoietin is a prohibited drug in sports, which is constantly monitored by the International Olympic Committee, and can also have a strong negative effect on the body, athletes eat to find analogues of the drug erythropoietin.
Such drugs as Epostim, Recormon, Erythrostim and others are simply synonymous with the drug Erythropoietin, therefore they differ in similar compositions. However, the cost of drugs can vary greatly, as well as the list of related substances in the drug. It should be understood that how to take erythropoietin in sports will not be written in any instructions for the drug. Basically, the drug is used only as a pharmacological treatment for various diseases, in particular anemia.